RESIN State of the Art Report (5)
Adaptation Approaches: Characterizing, assessing and prioritizing towards implementation
B. Abajo, G. García-Blanco, L. Gutierrez, J.A. Martínez, M. Mendizabal, H. Nassopoulos, M. Ehret.
This report provides a comprehensive review of the different approaches and criteria for the characterization of adaptation options, including the categorization of measures in urban areas, with particular focus on the role of nature based solutions for ecosystem based adaptation. It also presents the assessment framework and the approaches (evaluation of effectiveness and efficiency), methods and tools for prioritization of adaptation options, which has the potential to influence decision making aiming towards their implementation.
The report addresses the current debates concerning climate change adaptation. This includes the challenge of evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation measures, and the evident absence of standards. This raises the question of how could or should this be overcome by a common framework in the European Union (EU).
Knowledge gaps and research needs are highlighted. Here, a common framework and supporting criteria for the characterization of adaptation options as the basis for their evaluation seems to be needed. There is also a need for a well-structured operational and standardized assessment process, and also the harmonization of outcome values Prioritization methods require also particular development. More research and evidenced-based knowledge on the effectiveness of measures is required to reduce related uncertainty and gain legitimacy. New business models focusing on the deployment of innovative solutions, alongside the mainstreaming of adaptation into the policy agenda, seem to be required. Also, knowledge diffusion and facilitation on a cross-sectoral multidisciplinary approach appears necessary in order to identify, evaluate, prioritize and monitor synergies, cobenefits and trade-offs between adaptation options, policies and disciplines.
A glossary of terms, and their suggested definitions, is provided in Section 10. A range of methods and tools for the characterization, evaluation, prioritization and implementation of adaptation measures has been included in Annex I to this report.
A dissertation on Nature-based solutions (NBS) and their role in Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) has been included in Annex II of the present report. From the literature review, we understand that these interventions, unlike other measures, require specific approaches, assessment frameworks and policy tools for their development and implementation.