D1.1 Reviews Concepts and Approaches
These reports aim to review the state of knowledge and scientific discourse in topics relevant for the RESIN programme of work.
D1.2 RESIN GLOSSARY
This document outlines the definitions for various terms that will be employed throughout the RESIN project glossary.
D1.3 RESIN CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The RCF underpins RESIN by establishing a context for the project and clarifying the key concepts, and the relationships between them, that the project is developed around.
D1.4 Typology Final Report
This deliverable of the RESIN project presents the European Climate Risk Typology.
D1.5 WP1 Final Report
The goal of Work Package 1 (WP1) was to establish a coherent framework of concepts and ap-proaches linked to understanding and responding to extreme weather and climate change risks in urban areas, with a particular focus on critical infrastructure.
D2.1 DESIGN IVAVIA
This report describes the general approach of the RESIN project to support the vulnerability analysis (VA) of urban areas and their critical infrastructures regarding the impacts of climate change.
D2.3 Realisation & implementation IVAVIA
Realisation & implementation of method and tools for Impact and Vulnerability Analysis of Vital Infrastructures and built-up Areas.
D2.4 City case realization IVAVIA
This deliverable 2.4 reports on the developer's experiences with a view to the realisation and implementation of the exemplary application of the IVAVIA method that was conducted by Fraunhofer and the work package (WP) 2 research partners (Fraunhofer, EIVP, Siemens, UNIMAN, UNIBA, Tecnalia) in close co-ordination with the tier-1 city partners Bilbao, Bratislava, Greater Manchester and Paris.
D2.5 Applying IVAVIA
Test and assessment of the ‘Impact and Vulnerability Analysis of Vital Infrastructures and built-up Areas’ methodology in the city cases of Bilbao and Bratislava.
D3.1 RESIN LIBRARY STRUCTURE ONLINE
This study aims to develop a library or catalogue of standardised adaptation options.
D3.2 Standardising methods for prioritising adaptation options. Toolbox
This report provides support tools for decision making. Thus, this report is aimed at decision-makers involved in environmental issues, particularly practitioners that are responsible for the development and management of climate change adaptation plans.
D3.6 Completed library of adaptation options
The Adaptation Options Library (AOL) tool is a comprehensive database of adaptation options related to heat, pluvial, fluvial and costal floods, droughts and wind storms.
D4.1 RESIN CITY ASSESSMENT REPORTS
This report, which gathers the cities assessment reports of all four RESIN cities of Bilbao, Bratislava, Greater Manchester and Paris, will allow the RESIN cities and project partners to gain an overview over which adaptation and critical infrastructure protection (CIP) strategies, plans and measures are already in place or planned.
D4.2 Developing the RESIN tools, advancing local adaptation
D4.3 Decision support tools for climate change adaptation - User Guide
D5.2 Options for certification
Certification is the independent quality assessment of a product, service or person. The resulting certificate demonstrates compliance with predefined standards.
D6.1 RESIN ACTOR ANALYSIS FOR URBAN CLIMATE ADAPTATION
Methods and Tools in support of Stakeholder Analysis and Involvement
This report presents an overview of methods and tools in support of a stakeholder analysis for the various steps and stages of preparing for and developing and implementing climate adaptation strategies.
D6.2 FRAMEWORK FOR ADAPTATION PLANNING PROCESS
This report elaborates on the development approach and expected outline, use and form of the framework in which the decision support tooling will be presented to the end-users. To this end, a framework is developed in which all supportive elements to the end users can be placed, and presented. Eventually, in this framework, the supportive tools, methods and other structures will be referenced; this includes the results from other RESIN WP’s and external sources. Finally, an outline of a work plan is presented to develop and operationalise the framework, in close collaboration with the RESIN city partners.
D6.3 Coping with complexity, handling uncertainty
This report should be seen as the starting point of addressing the issues of uncertainty and complexity in the RESIN project.
D6.4 EGuide development
High Level Description of submitted results
D6.5 Decision Support tools
This deliverable describes the use of tools and methods within the context of the e-Guide as an information system supporting the development of adaptation plans and strategies by cities and city (infrastructure) managers. The tools referred in the e-Guide are listed, and the way and places they are referred to in the e-Guide decision framework are discussed.
This document has been prepared to mark the delivery of this electronic product and outlines the contents, process and decisions underlying the development of the e-Guide, which can found at http://e-Guide.resin.itti.com.pl/.
This document provides an overview of the RESIN website and lays out the logic behind the design and the features that can be supported following future updates.
D7.3 Knowledge transfer workshops
Two Knowledge transfer Workshops (KtW) were organized. The first KtW was hosted by the core city of Bratislava from 12-13th June 2017 and included the tier-2 cities that were paired with Bratislava and Manchester, whereas the second knowledge transfer workshop was hosted by the core city of Paris on the 18-19th October 2017 and included the tier-2 cities assigned to Paris and Bilbao.
D7.4 2-Tier webinars
The aim of this report is to explain the design, organisation and implementation of the webinars.
D7.5 Stakeholder Dialogues
In the framework of work package 7 (WP7), two Stakeholder Dialogues were organised and implemented as part of the RESIN Tier-2 Circle of Learning. This report provides an overview of the development, the implementation, and the outcomes of both events.
D7.6 Policy Briefs
Collaboratively developing tools for climate change adaptation – Lessons for research and policy
This policy brief includes recommendations for research teams and city level decision-makers corresponding to 1) the main obstacles to effective climate change adaptation at city level encountered by cities in the RESIN consortium, and 2) the challenges of effective research-practice collaboration, with corresponding recommendations.
Standardisation in local climate change adaptation
Standards can play an essential role in adapting to the impacts of climate change: as an instrument to support better regulation, to ensure a common basis for benchmarking and for describing and comparing the performance of climate adaptation measures and processes. Recognising this potential, the European Commission requested that the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) develop “guidance tools which ensure climate adaptation is embedded in all future European standardisation activities” (CEN-CENELEC, 2016). This request aimed to facilitate the implementation of the EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change (2013), which lays out priorities and actions for climate change adaptation in Europe. Despite this, there are barriers and limitations to using standards for climate change adaptation. This policy brief provides an outline of the urban standardisation landscape in Europe, covering the benefits of (and barriers to) using standards for local climate change adaptation, existing relevant standards for local governments, work produced by the RESIN project in this area, and concluding with a set of recommendations for improving the impact of standardisation on climate change adaptation efforts.
Addendum to 'Understanding risks in the light of uncertainty: low-probability, high-impact coastal events in cities'
Ibon Galarraga, Elisa Sainz de Murieta, Anil Markandya and Luis María Abadie
This addendum adds to the analysis presented in 'Understanding risks in the light of uncertainty: low-probability, high-impact coastal events in cities' Abadie et al (2017 Environ. Res. Lett. 12 014017). We propose to use the framework developed earlier to enhance communication and understanding of risks, with the aim of bridging the gap between highly technical risk management discussion to the public risk aversion debate. We also propose that the framework could be used for stress-testing resilience.
Enhancing the Practical Utility of Risk Assessments in Climate Change Adaptation
Angela Connelly, Jeremy Carter, John Handley and Stephen Hincks
In 2012, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) moved from a vulnerability to a risk-based conception of climate change adaptation. However, there are few examples of work that translates this approach into climate change adaptation practice, in order to demonstrate the practical utility of following a risk-based approach to adapting to climate change. The paper explores critically the differing conceptions of vulnerability and risk across the literature relating to disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. The paper also examines a selection of spatially focused climate change vulnerability and risk assessment methodologies in this context. In doing so, we identify issues with the availability of spatial data to enable spatial risk-based climate change assessments. We argue that the concept of risk is potentially favorable in helping cities to understand the challenges posed by climate change, identify adaptation options, and build resilience to the changing climate. However, we suggest that change is needed in the way that practitioners and policymakers engage with risk-based concepts if they are to be embed into climate change adaptation activities.
Towards successful adaptation: a checklist for the development of climate change adaptation plans
Marta Olazabal, Ibon Galarraga, James Ford, Alexandra Lesnikowski and Elisa Sainz de Murieta
The earliest climate change adaptation plans emerged about ten years ago and are an increasingly important component of the international policy agenda. Because these plans by nature involve long-term objectives, some of the main questions raised in current adaptation tracking research studies are whether and how they will be implemented and what is required for these plans to successfully achieve their objectives? There is no consensus on how to define “successful adaptation” and there are multiple, sometimes competing, interpretations of success. In this working paper, we define three areas where climate change adaptation plans should focus on to successfully achieve their goals: policy and economy, science and learning and legitimacy. We develop a checklist that identifies required aspects for successful adaptation and sustainability in the long-term based on these three areas and related indicators. We suggest that plans follow this checklist as a guideline for plan development and institutional capacity building in the long term. We eventually discuss the adequacy of these metrics for assessing the credibility of developed climate adaptation policies.
The effect of flooding on mental health: Lessons learned for building resilience
Sebastien Foudi, Nuria Oses-Eraso, and Ibon Galarraga
Risk management and climate adaptation literature focuses mainly on reducing the impacts of, exposure to, and vulnerability to extreme events such as floods and droughts. Posttraumatic stress disorder is one of the most important impacts related to these events, but also a relatively under-researched topic outside original psychopathological contexts. We conduct a survey to investigate the mental stress caused by floods. We focus on hydrological, individual, and collective drivers of posttraumatic stress. We assess stress with flood-specific health scores and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire. Our findings show that the combination of water depth and flood velocity measured via a Hazard Class Index is an important stressor; and that mental health resilience can be significantly improved by providing the population with adequate information. More specifically, the paper shows that psychological distress can be reduced by (i) coordinating awareness of flood risks and flood protection and prevention behavior; (ii) developing the ability to protect oneself from physical, material and intangible damage; (iii) designing simple insurance procedures and protocols for fast recovery; and (iv) learning from previous experiences.
Assessment of Climate Change-Related Risks and Vulnerabilities in Cities and Urban Environments, Interoperability for Crisis Management
Jingquan Xie, Manfred Bogen, Daniel Lückerath, Erich Rome, Betim Sojeva, Oliver Ullrich, Rainer Worst
Increasing Resilience of Smart Cities (ICRIM 2018), co-located with 9th I-ESA 2018 Conference, Berlin, Germany, March 20–23, 2018.
Climate Risk Assessment under Uncertainty: An Application to Main European Coastal Cities
Luis M. Abadie, Elisa Sainz de Murieta* and Ibon Galarraga
Basque Centre for Climate Change, Leioa, Spain
This paper analyses the risk of extreme coastal events in major European coastal cities using a stochastic diffusion model that is calibrated with the worst case emission scenario from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), i.e., the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5. The model incorporates uncertainty in the sea-level rise (SLR) distribution. Expected mean annual losses are calculated for 19 European coastal cities, together with two risk measures: the Value at Risk (VaR) and the Expected Shortfall (ES). Both measures are well-known in financial economics and enable us to calculate the impact of the worst SLR paths under uncertainty. The results presented here can serve as valuable inputs for cities in deciding how much risk they are willing to accept, and consequently how much adaptation they need depending on the risk aversion of their decision-makers.
Understanding risks in the light of uncertainty: low-probability, high-impact coastal events in cities
Luis Maria Abadie, Ibon Galarraga1 and Elisa Sainz de Murieta
Published 17 January 2017
© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd
A quantification of present and future mean annual losses due to extreme coastal events can be crucial for adequate decision making on adaptation to climate change in coastal areas around the globe. However, this approach is limited when uncertainty needs to be accounted for. In this paper, we assess coastal flood risk from sea-level rise and extreme events in 120 major cities around the world using an alternative stochastic approach that accounts for uncertainty. Probability distributions of future relative (local) sea-level rise have been used for each city, under three IPPC emission scenarios, RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. The approach allows a continuous stochastic function to be built to assess yearly evolution of damages from 2030 to 2100. Additionally, we present two risk measures that put low-probability, high-damage events in the spotlight: the Value at Risk (VaR) and the Expected Shortfall (ES), which enable the damages to be estimated when a certain risk level is exceeded. This level of acceptable risk can be defined involving different stakeholders to guide progressive adaptation strategies. The method presented here is new in the field of economics of adaptation and offers a much broader picture of the challenges related to dealing with climate impacts. Furthermore, it can be applied to assess not only adaptation needs but also to put adaptation into a timeframe in each city.