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20 December 2017

CRITIS conference: Call for papers

In 2018, the International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security faces its 13th anniversary.

CRITIS 2018 continues the tradition of presenting innovative research and exploring new challenges in the field of critical (information) infrastructures protection (C(I)IP), resilience and fostering the dialogue with stakeholders.

CRITIS 2018 aims at bringing together researchers, professionals from academia, critical (information) infrastructure operators,

industry, defence sector and governmental organisations working in the field of the security of critical (information) infrastructure systems.

As in previous years, invited speakers will complement a programme of original research contributions. The conference invites the different research communities and disciplines involved in the C(I)IP space, and encourages discussions and multi-disciplinary approaches to relevant C(I)IP problems.

The Projects' Dissemination Session will be an opportunity of dissemination for ongoing European, multinational, and national projects.

Besides, this CRITIS conference has a special focus on current and uture energy infrastructures within a special session Energy infrastructure operators and stakeholders: key challenges and solution directions,Invited key experts from the energy sector will share their experience in the field.

›› Deadline for full - text submission is 30 April 2018.

11 December 2017

RESIN project: to support resilient cities and their infrastructures

Horizon 2020 RESIN project develops standardised approaches to increase the resilience of Europe’s cities and urban areas to extreme weather and climate change. RESIN has a specific focus on ensuring that critical infrastructures are better integrated into this process.

The heart of the RESIN project's approach lies in the co-creation between the partner cities and the research institutes developing the products of the project. This process is actively supported by ICLEI (as a city network and knowledge brokerage organisation) and Arcadis from the viewpoint of a consultancy company.

The main products of the RESIN project include:

- A typology for European cities for adaptation to climate change that can be used to identify cities and regions with similar risk and adaptation profile;

- Detailed guidance for an impact and vulnerability analysis (IVAVIA) including tools such as an impact chain diagram creator, and aggregation and calculation support;

- A database of possible adaptation options with due attention for harmonisation of effectiveness and cost-efficiency information;

- Standardised methods for prioritising between these adaptation measures which will be an input for an adaptation pathway design;

- A common unifying framework for the adaptation decision making process, with associated methods, tools and datasets created to support decision-making at appropriate stages, in the form of an e-Guide;

- Inputs for the international and European Standardisation organisations to enhance the standardisation of approaches in climate change adaptation.

The policy implications of the RESIN project: Panel discussion in a project meeting in November 2017

At the occasion of the RESIN November 2017 consortium meeting held in Brussels, a panel discussed the outcomes of the project in the light of EU policies and European urban challenges:

- the urban risk typology have a value both for individual cities, allowing them to identify and learn from comparable cities, and for national and EU institutions, that can use the typology for developing policies and distributing funding covering the variety of cities and regions in Europe;

- equally all the harmonisation and standardization work within RESIN is beneficial for the cities and their stakeholders as it improves the quality of risk assessments and adaptation strategy making, and it contributes to more comparability between cities;

- from the audience the development of a “stress-test” for cities to demonstrate where they are vulnerable to current and future extreme weather conditions was recommended;

- a recurring topic was the value added of the co-creation process that is at the heart of the project. While it obviously contributes to the development of tools that are better and more widely applicable, it also contributes to the scientific quality of the research. The consortium was invited to publish on this aspect.

If you are interested in learning more about this project, don't miss RESIN upcoming events:

- RESIN Stakeholder Dialogue," Solutions for strategic adaptation planning in European cities“, 1st February 2018, Manchester, UK.

- Open European Day at Bonn Resilient Cities, 25th April 2018, Bonn, Germany.

1 December 2017

RESIN meeting looks to the future of urban climate change adaptation

The RESIN project consortium met in Brussels (Belgium) on 23-24 November 2017 to consider the project outputs in an international policy context and to plan for the project’s final year.

Cities in Europe are approaching a crucial time in terms of finding solutions for climate change adaptation. RESIN is optimally placed to advise and guide policy developments on a local and international level on the topic of urban adaptation.

The RESIN partner cities have been central players in the RESIN project, providing knowledge to improve the project tools’ quality. Alberto Terenzi, ICLEI Europe, explained: “We wanted to adjust the timing of the tool development to match cities’ needs.” The RESIN cities have already begun using the tools, and have made progress on adaptation with them despite the tools not being developed to completion.

The Impact and Vulnerability Analysis (IVAVIA) tool helps to link vulnerability and risk. Manchester and Bilbao (Spain) have been central in the development of this tool and have both developed impact chains as part of the process. Up to now, Greater Manchester has completed a case study, baseline assessment, priority impact chains and a two-stage risk assessment, with flood risk and transport infrastructure a particular focus.

Mikel González-Vara, Manager of Environmental Strategy, City of Bilbao, said: “We have to connect to our environment. We are four cities, but surrounding us there are further cities with related problems.”

Bilbao is looking ahead to the city’s new Adaptation Plan, which will be submitted next year. As part of RESIN, Bilbao developed an impact chain for flooding in built-up areas. This is a very real and immediate risk for the rainy coastal city. Similarly, Bratislava (Slovakia) is planning to use the RESIN adaptation options library to evaluate the action plan for climate change adaptation progress every two years.

The tools of the RESIN project are useful as a complementary combined suite of tools, hosted in an online guidance platform called the “eGuide”. The final RESIN tools will be launched in spring 2018. RESIN will hold its first public event aimed at city practitioners in Greater Manchester on 1 February 2018.

For more information, visit the RESIN project website.

28 November 2017

RESIN maps out the next steps in solutions for strategic adaptation planning in European cities at Brussels meeting

The RESIN project consortium met in Brussels on 23-24 November 2017 to consider the project outputs in an international policy context and to invite guidance from the projects Advisory Board and reviewers.

The RESIN project’s ideal partnership of pioneering research experts and active city representatives uniquely position the project as creators of a complete adaptation action package. The RESIN tools, which are now nearing completion, will be the first of their kind, going beyond local cases and consolidating accumulated experience and knowledge to generate reliable, evidence-supported toolkits that will be both scientifically novel and user-friendly.

“We are approaching a crucial time in terms of solution finding.”

Diogo de Gusmao-Soerensen (DG Research, Head of Climate Services) stressed the importance of impact and policy relevance of research projects. As a European-funded project, RESIN is optimally placed to advise and guide policy developments on a local and international level on the topic of climate change adaptation in cities. Developments at the recent 2017 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP23) held in Bonn (Germany) showed that the issues addressed in this project are crucial. This topic of research and discussion is incredibly important and pertinent. European Union member states have made vital commitments to climate change at COP23 and must lead and bolster their peers in the international community to commit to climate change action.

“To some communities around the world, climate change of 1.5 degrees is high end climate change.”

An appeal was made to the project consortium to ensure that the high-end scenarios are taken on board when dealing with resilience. It is also important to take into account the economic aspects of adaptation and to focus on finding and offering solution to climate change adaptation challenges.

“We wanted to adjust the timing of the tool development to match cities’ needs.”

The RESIN partner cities have been central players in the RESIN project. While the original concept of the project was that the four core cities of Greater Manchester, Bratislava, Bilbao and Paris would test the tools developed by the research institutions, this relationship has developed to involve the cities in an even more central role. The project has aimed for optimal compatibility between tool development and strategic development in the cities by adjusting the timing of the tool development with the city’s local milestones. Further than the cities’ knowledge being applied to improve the tools’ quality, the RESIN cities have been able to already make progress on adaptation through the tools before the tools have even been developed to completion. Workshops focusing on knowledge transfer workshops showed the success of the co-creation process, as they demonstrated that the tools were also applicable to external (Tier 2) cities.

“Having something red green and amber for risk registries can be useful for cities.”

In terms of linking vulnerability and risk assessment, the Impact and Vulnerability Analysis (IVAVIA) tool has been a useful step as part of the co-creation process. Adaptation has been placed high on the agenda in the RESIN partner cities. The RESIN cities of Manchester and Bilbao have been central in the development of this tool and have both developed impact chains as part of the process.

Greater Manchester carried out a process of consultation to establish which impact chains to develop. Two were selected: road transport and green infrastructure. Supported by their RESIN co-creation partner, the Fraunhofer Institute, they held initial stakeholder workshops to establish the impact chains. This work aims to support decision-makers in Greater Manchester to push forward the adaptation and resilience agenda. Up to now, Greater Manchester has completed a case study, baseline assessment, priority impact chains and a two-stage risk assessment. Flood risk and transport infrastructure are a particular focus.

“We have to connect to our environment. We are four cities, but surrounding us there are further cities with related problems.”

Bilbao is looking ahead to the city’s new Adaptation Plan, which will be submitted next year. As part of their work on the development of IVAVIA, Bilbao developed an impact chain for flooding in built-up areas. This is a very real and immediate risk for the rainy coastal city. An impact chain was also developed about the impact of extreme precipitation on city traffic infrastructure. The process in Bilbao has shown the importance of cross-cutting data administration and the need for co-creation, not only within the RESIN project but to improve projects across the municipality.

Bratislava has been working with Tecnalia to develop a database of adaptation options. In the case of Bratislava, this co-creation process has been very closely linked to strategic processes in the city. Bratislava published a new “Action plan for adaptation to negative effects of climate change” in 2017. The city is planning to use the RESIN adaptation options library to evaluate the action plan for climate change adaptation progress every two years.

Bratislava found the adaptation options library to be useful for a number of purposes:

1) Adaptation planning for relevant departments, together with the outcomes of the vulnerability assessment

2) Preparing new concept and strategies for design of public space

3) For meeting standards and limits set by competition rules

The tools of the RESIN project are useful as a complementary combined suite of tools, which provide cities with comprehensive decision support taking them though the whole climate change adaptation planning process. This suite is hosted in an online guidance platform called the “eGuide”. A prototype eGuide is already available online at e-guide.resin.itti.com.pl. An update is planned for Spring 2018 and the final version will be released in Autumn 2018.

The eGuide has been developed for and by the end users. It provides practical information, guidance, the suite of RESIN tools and a structure to document and save the reports and materials a city develops as part of the climate change adaptation planning process. This answers to the reality in cities where strategies can develop over several years, and in the case of staff circulation, new staff need an integrated platform to find information on processes that may span across several municipal departments and involve public-private actors.

The final RESIN tools will be launched in Spring 2018. RESIN will hold its first public event aimed at city practitioners in Greater Manchester on 1st February: Solutions for strategic adaptation planning in European cities.

27 November 2017

ICLEI's SMR project website wins .eu Web Award

The Smart Mature Resilience (SMR) website, developed and managed by the ICLEI European Secretariat in Freiburg (Germany), was awarded the .eu Web Award 2017 in "The Laurels" category at a prestigious ceremony in Brussels (Belgium) on 21 November. The award ceremony was organised by EURid, the registration system for the .eu domain name on behalf of the European Commission.

In “The Laurels” category, the best websites for education, institutions and European projects compete for the award. Thanks to consistently high communication competence and content quality, ICLEI was able to win the award for a second year in a row. In 2016, ICLEI won the award in the “Better World” category for the www.mobilityweek.eu website. The winning website receives a video about the project and the website.

Speaking about the award, Ruud Schuthof, ICLEI Europe Deputy Regional Director for communications, said: "The .eu web award is a great honour for ICLEI and is a recognition of ICLEI's quality and longstanding experience in the field of communication on the topic of sustainability in cities. To have won the award for the second time confirms our work's merit."

Jose Maria Sarriegi, coordinator of the SMR project, added: “It is an honor to be recognised as the best webpage in the Laurels category of the Eurid web awards. We hope this award will increase the number of cities using the tools available in our website, which is our main objective.”

For more information about the SMR project, visit the project website.

13 November 2017

Strengthening Europe's resilience backbone: 9 new cities join SMR at Thessaloniki launch event

Representatives of 19 cities and municipalities met in Thessaloniki on 7th November for the Smart Mature Resilience project's Stakeholder Dialogue event. 9 cities became the newest members of the SMR project, joining the project’s 7 cities, which have been working with researchers for the last 2 years to develop tools to support cities in strategically developing their resilience. The cities to join the Tier 3 group were identified on the basis of experience and knowledge of resilience development. The event marked the launch of the project's third circle of cities aiming to build a backbone of resilient cities in Europe.

Four of the cities have developed this knowledge through membership of ICLEI: the Greater Amman Municipality (Jordan), Malmö (Sweden), Münster (Germany) and Rekjavik (Iceland), or participation in projects like the RESIN project (www.resin-cities.eu) in partnership with ICLEI, in the case of Greater Manchester (United Kingdom), or are part of other projects and international networks: Athens (Greece), Malaga (Spain), Stirling (United Kingdom) and Thessaloniki (Greece).

As a true dialogue, the new cities were active contributors to the event as well as receiving training from the project's Tier 1 and Tier 2 cities and research partners. Aphrodite Bouikidis, Resilient Thessaloniki, presented Thessaloniki's Resilience Strategy, presenting the city's general resilience goals: Shape a Thriving and Sustainable City, Co-create an Inclusive City, Build a Dynamic Urban Economy and Responsive City and Re-discover the City's Relationship with the Sea.

Giorgos Dimarelos, Deputy Mayor for Urban Resilience and Development Planning, shared Thessaloniki’s journey towards resilience amid intense challenges, including the financial crisis, the challenge of integrating refugees, and adverse weather effects from climate change. Steps by the city council have produced positive results in creating cooperative relationships with stakeholders, establishing a promising basis for achieving the city's goals, such as tackling unemployment and re-establishing a meaningful connection between the city and its coastline. The Deputy Mayor demonstrated how the city had successfully won support from the regional government to develop the coastline area in collaboration with neighbouring municipalities.

The cities of Kristiansand, Greater Manchester and San Sebastian are, like Thessaloniki, coastal cities, and each city shared their experience with working with critical infrastructure providers, first responders and citizens to deal with crisis situations caused by flooding, and to develop preparedness and resilience to flooding as part of the cities' daily work. Kristiansand and San Sebastian are applying the tools of the SMR project to conduct self-assessment and audit of the city's policies and current levels of investment in resilience, as well as considering the interdependencies of risk using the Risk Systemicity Questionnaire (RSQ). These cities are now serving as guides and peer trainers to their Tier 3 partner cities to pass on the knowledge they have developed through the SMR project.

The city of Amman, Jordan, shares challenges with some European cities. The population in the city has more than doubled in the last decade due to the war in neighbouring Syria, and the municipality has been working overtime to provide support to the new inhabitants and stretch the city’s infrastructure and housing to accommodate the unprecedented population pressures. Its ICLEI member peer, Malmö, has also introduced programmes in response to refugees seeking asylum from war, and the cities could compare challenges, risks and policies that have been implemented in both cities.

The event proceeded with training on the SMR City Dynamics Model. Cities were divided into groups and played the project's serious game to play in a simulation sandbox and experiment with the effects of different budget options. As budget experiments cannot be carried out in real life in cities, simulations provide a way for practitioners and decision-makers to try out different investment options in a safe environment. The game helps users to better understand the Resilience Maturity Model and to see through trial and error playing, the significant benefit of implementing policies in the order laid out in the Resilience Maturity Model.

The cities participated in a training session on the SMR Risk Systemicity Questionnaire (RSQ). The participants were divided into 5 groups, with a mix of city representatives in each group. Each group was facilitated by a Tier 1 or 2 city representative who had been involved in the development of the RSQ, with support from Strathclyde or an experienced user of the RSQ. Each group addressed different topics in the RSQ: Public Unrest; Elderly; Social Cohesion; Critical Infrastructure; Climate Change – air pollution.

There was a high level of debate and involvement about risk scenarios and potential strategies that could be implemented to prepare for interconnected risks. The groups were able to experience focused discussion on risk scenarios in cities facilitated by use of the RSQ. The Tier 3 cities were able to quickly understand how the tool worked and were able to use in in a trial run in practice. Some Tier 3 cities were already confident in their plans to run RSQ-based workshops locally.

Clara Grimes (ICLEI Europe) trained the cities on approaches for communicating best practices for resilience in cities based on narrative methods. Effectively communicating projects and policies in story form is essential so that citizens, stakeholders, other departments of the municipality and the media can better understand and connect with a city’s aims and progress. The cities of Stirling (UK), Malmö (Sweden), Glasgow (UK), Vejle (Denmark) and Rome (Italy) then applied these methods to tell the story of their local best practices to the cities and stakeholders present at the event, including community group activities in Stirling, crisis management in Malmö, resilience education in schools in Glasgow and a programme where a design school ‘designed’ ways for severely disabled people to make meaningful friendships beyond their professional relationships with their carers. Further resilience stories are available for reference in the SMR Policies Tool. Finally, researchers from the Center for Integrated Emergency Management presented on the SMR Resilience Information Portal and how cities can pick and choose code from this portal toolbox to supplement their resilience management information infrastructure.

The Tier 3 programme will continue with online training webinars and an in-person Stakeholder Workshop as part of the Breakfast at Sustainability's event series in Brussels on 7th March.

1 November 2017

Paris hosts Knowledge Transfer Workshop

The city of Paris hosted the RESIN project’s second ‘knowledge transfer workshop’ from 18-19th October 2017. This was the first time the core cities of Paris and Bilbao met their Tier 2 city counterparts in person from: Alba (Italy), Almada (Portugal), Athens (Greece), London (United Kingdom), Padua (Italy), Strasbourg (France), Warsaw (Poland) and Zadar (Croatia). The idea behind the workshops was to spark peer-to-peer exchange between the cities and to introduce the RESIN tools to the tier-2 cities, particularly the IVAVIA tool, the Adaptation Options Library and the E-Guide.

Each tool was allocated its own session where it was presented followed by an active "hands-on" training. Each training session was followed by a “replicability and usability check” session, where the tier-2 cities gave their feedback on the tools, and offered suggestions for how to make the tools more compatible with cities’ needs.

IVAVIA stands for Impact and Vulnerability Analysis of Vital Infrastructures and built-up Areas. The overall aim of a risk-based vulnerability assessment using IVAVIA is to help cities understand the cause-effect relationships of climate change and to assess what impact on people, economy and built-up area under study can be expected now and for the future due to the changing climate. The RESIN cities have been closely involved in developing IVAVIA, and as part of this process, they have developed ‘impact chains’ for their cities. At the Paris workshop, the participating cities were shown how to conduct an impact chain and practically apply it in a "‘Train the trainers’ session: how to conduct an impact chain workshop". Each cities picked a hazard that they are dealing with in practice, which was primarily floods and heat waves, and then identified the exposed object, indicators, attributes stressors, and impacts. Then, as part of a "Replicability and Usability Check" feedback round, where the cities shared their experience on developing impact chains.

RESIN is developing a searchable archive, which will host the above tools as well as documentation on adaptation measures previously implemented in different cities: this is called the Adaptation Options Library. The library comprises a database hosting literature related to the performance of adaptation options with almost 300 papers and over 700 case studies. The cities tested a mock-up version of the tool by coming up with examples of threats from their cities and using the library to search for potential adaptation options that they could use to tackle those threats.

The RESIN e-Guide is designed to provide decision support for climate change adaptation planning by city administrators. It lays out the steps and activities involved in an urban adaptation process, provides user-oriented support to carry out this process, directs users towards relevant sources of information and hosts the RESIN decision support tools.

At the second Knowledge Transfer Workshop in Paris, the very first version of the E-Guide was made accessible to the participants. The cities were able to play around with and test the E-Guide. The participating tier-1 and tier-2 cities were also asked in parallel to fill out an evaluation form to inform further fine-tuning of the tool.

In two city sessions, tier-1 city interacted with its tier-2 peers to get to know each other and share challenges and solutions. Representatives of Paris and Athens found a common challenges they share: heat waves, and Paris was interested to learn about the digital application "CoolAthens", which is part of the "Treasure" project and identifies cool spots for vulnerable populations during heat waves.

16 October 2017

Paris to host RESIN Knowledge Transfer Workshop

The RESIN project will hold its second Knowledge Transfer in Paris (France) from 18-19 October 2017. At the workshop, Marie Gantois of the City of Paris, will share the city's goals, activities and challenges related to climate change adaptation, outline how the city has been using the RESIN project to address these challenges, and present the key results for the French capital from participation in the project so far. Miguel González Vara and Susana Ruiz Fernandez of the City of Bilbao (Spain) will discuss Bilbao’s adaptation context and activities, and present how the city is adapting to climate change through RESIN.

During the Knowledge Transfer Workshop, cities will receive interactive training on three of RESIN’s tools: Impact and Vulnerability Analysis of Vital Infrastructures and built-up Areas (IVAVIA), the Adaptation Options Library, and the e-Guide. The RESIN project’s IVAVIA tool supports and guides the process of impact and vulnerability analysis for critical infrastructures and built-up areas. The Adaptation Options Library is a searchable archive that hosts the suite of RESIN tools as well as documentation on adaptation measures implemented in different cities.

The RESIN project will hold two Knowledge Transfer Workshops and two Stakeholder Dialogues. One workshop per core city - Bratislava (Slovakia), Paris Greater Manchester (UK) and Bilbao, (Spain) - will be organised to kick-off the 2-tier group engagement. The 17 Tier 2 cities are: Alba (Italy), Almada (Portugal), Athens (Greece), Burgas (Bulgaria), London (UK), Lahti (Finland), Newcastle (UK), Nijmegen (Netherlands), Padua (Italy), Radom (Poland), Reykjavík (Iceland), Sfântu Gheorghe (Romania), Strasbourg (France), Ghent (Belgium), Vilnius (Lithuania), Warsaw (Poland) and Zadar (Croatia). Crucial local infrastructure stakeholders from the core cities will attend the workshops and exchange with their Tier 2 peers.

The first Knowledge Transfer Workshop was held in June in Bratislava. This has already led to exchange and collaboration, as Bratislava visited their Tier 2 equivalents in Reykjavik following the first Knowledge Transfer Workshop.

For more information, visit the RESIN website.

11 October 2017

Interactive training and city knowledge exchange at second Knowledge Transfer Workshop in Paris

The RESIN project will hold its second Knowledge Transfer in Paris from 18th -19th October 2017. At the workshop, Marie Gantois, city of Paris, will share the city's goals, activities and challenges related to climate change adaptation, how the city has been using the RESIN project to address these challenges, and the key outcomes for Paris from participation in the project so far. Miguel González Vara and Susana Ruiz Fernandez, city of Bilbao, will also present and discuss Bilbao’s adaptation context and activities, and how the city is adapting to climate change through RESIN.

The workshop will include interactive training on three of RESIN’s tools: Impact and Vulnerability Analysis of Vital Infrastructures and built-up Areas (IVAVIA), the Adaptation Options Library and the e-Guide. The RESIN project’s IVAVIA tool supports and guides the process of impact and vulnerability analysis for critical infrastructures and built-up areas. The Adaptation Options Library is a searchable archive that hosts the suite of RESIN tools as well as documentation on adaptation measures previously implemented in different cities. The library has a collaborative element where partners and other users can log in to upload or edit content. During the Knowledge Transfer Workshop, cities will be trained on how to use the tool’s features to select and prioritise adaptation options.

The RESIN e-Guide is designed to provide decision support for climate change adaptation planning by city administrators. It provides an overview of the various steps and activities of the urban adaptation process, and provides the practical, user-oriented support to actually perform such an adaptation process. It connects users to the most relevant sources of information and supporting methods available on the web, including providing interfaces for brand-new tools that are being developed by the RESIN partners. It helps users choose the best approaches, methods, tools and information sources for particular situations and particular steps and links with references to evidence-based information. Participants will engage with the e-Guide in a ‘Gallery Walk’, where they walk will along a physical path through the e-Guide’s topical themes and discuss and explore the more pressing and promising issues for them. The cities’ experience and impressions of the tools will be discussed and taken on board to feed into further development and dissemination of the tools.

The RESIN project will hold two Knowledge Transfer Workshops and two Stakeholder Dialogues throughout the project. One workshop per core city (Bratislava, Paris, Greater Manchester and Bilbao) will be organised in close cooperation with the core cities to kick-off the 2-tier group engagement. The 17 Tier 2 cities are: Alba (Italy), Almada (Portugal), Athens (Greece), Burgas (Bulgaria), London (UK), Lahti (Finland), Newcastle (UK), Nijmegen (Netherlands), Padua (Italy), Radom (Poland), Reykjavík (Iceland), Sfântu Gheorghe (Romania), Strasbourg (France), Ghent (Belgium), Vilnius (Lithuania), Warsaw (Poland) and Zadar (Croatia). Crucial local infrastructure stakeholders from the respective core cities will attend the workshops and exchange with their Tier 2 peers.

The first Knowledge Transfer Workshop was held in June in Bratislava. This has already led to exchange and collaboration on the initiative of the cities, as Bratislava visited their Tier 2 equivalents in Reykjavik following the first Knowledge Transfer Workshop. For more information, please see http://www.resin-cities.eu/newsroom/news-archive/?c=search&uid=c1b869ec.

9 October 2017

Smart Mature Resilience to launch new programme and workshops at Thessaloniki event

Nine ambitious local governments will join stakeholders from seven European cities in kicking off a new city collaboration programme as part of the Smart Mature Resilience (SMR) project at a Stakeholder Dialogue in Thessaloniki (Greece) on 7 November 2017.

The event will see participating cities sharing and exchanging local government policies and tools for strategically building city resilience. European cities are facing increasingly frequent and intense hazards and risks as climate change and changing social demographics place their critical infrastructures under increasing pressure. Sharing good practices can help them plan ahead for known and unknown shocks and stresses.

As part of the SMR project, three so-called “Tier 1” cities, Glasgow (UK), Kristiansand (Norway) and Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain), have co-developed a suite of tools to support them and other cities in planning, budgeting and identifying replicable policies towards their resilience goals. A second group of “Tier 2” cities, Bristol (UK), Riga (Latvia), Rome (Italy) and Vejle (Denmark), has been closely observing and providing feedback on this process.

At the one-day Stakeholder Dialogue, these cities will share their knowledge of these tools and contextualise them in terms of real policies to a new group of “Tier 3” cities including Amman (Jordan), Athens (Greece), Greater Manchester (UK), Malaga (Spain), Malmö (Sweden), Reykjavik (Iceland), Stirling (UK) and Thessaloniki (Greece). The event will be officially opened by the Mayor of Thessaloniki, Yiannis Boutaris.

Research as part of SMR has found that cities and their critical infrastructure are interdependent, and that cities can help further boost their own resilience by supporting and fostering resilience in other cities. SMR is supporting the potential for replication by working towards international standards in city resilience management.

The first CEN workshop initiated by SMR, spearheaded by German standardisation organisation DIN, CEN WS/88 - Functional Specification for a Resilience Information Portal is underway. Two further envisaged CEN Workshop Agreements, City Resilience Development - Maturity Model and City Resilience Development - Operational Guidance, will kick off in Thessaloniki on 8 November, following the Stakeholder Dialogue. To join the standardization processes, please contact rene.lindner@din.de.

For further information, visit the project website.

2 October 2017

City of Bratislava exchanges with Reykjavik's Experts on Climate Change Adaptation in Iceland

The capital city of Bratislava participated in the 8th international conference of the Society for Disaster Risk Management "Dimensions of Disaster Risk Reduction and Society Resilience in a Complex World" which took place on 23-25 August, in Reykjavík (Iceland). In addition to the conference, the Office of the Chief Architect represented the RESIN project in a visit the City Hall of Reykjavík in order to meet the city's experts for climate change adaptation, whom they first met during the 1st Knowledge Transfer Workshop organised by ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability in Bratislava on 12-13 June 2017.

Among the main topics of the conference were the increase in natural disasters due to climate change such as drought, floods, forest fires and overheating of the urban environment, which also resonate with Central Europe and Bratislava. The city of Bratislava presented outputs from several projects that are related to climate change risk. One of the contributions focused on Bratislava´s experience in the RESIN project, which was prepared together with Faculty of Natural Sciences of the UK in Bratislava and Fraunhofer Institute for Intelligent Analysis and Information Systems in Germany. The aim was to provide insight on how tools for reducing climate change risks and impacts are developed by researchers and later tested and used by the four city partners in the project. In Bratislava city, these tools are tested and in order to be finally used in urban planning, adaptation planning and decision making, which is in the project referred to as the process of co-creation. The presentation summed up the lessons learned from RESIN and from practical work on the side of implementation of blue and green adaptation measures. The take-home message for Bratislava from this conference is that adaptation planning goes beyond building green and blue infrastructure and should also encompass the planning of preparedness for climate change hazards and minimising the risk they impose for health of citizens but also damage or loss to property, with a special focus on awareness raising and communication in risk management.

Thanks to the cooperation as part of the RESIN project among 1-tier and 2-tier cities, it was possible to meet the representatives of Reykjavík City hall, who also participated in the 1st Knowledge Transfer Workshop and exchange experience with the implementation of adaptation measures in a dynamically changing urban environment that has to withstand the adverse impacts of climate change, such as heavy rainfall and other extreme weather events. In Reykjavik, this problem is solved by diverting water from roads and other impermeable areas to areas that are covered with vegetation or wetlands. Despite the fact that Iceland uses almost exclusively renewable energy (geothermal and water) to meet its energy needs, Reykjavik plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions also by revitalizing wetlands and urban greenery, including its woody component, which can absorb most greenhouse gases. An example of such a wetland is the Vatnsmýrin, which was revitalized on the territory of the city near the University of Iceland and includes an educational walkway that brings its significance closer to visitors and residents of the city.

Like Reykjavik, the capital city of Bratislava is balancing the need for urban development and densification with pleasant and safe urban environment for living. For Bratislava, this mostly concerns reintroducing green areas into the city, which would make the city's microclimate more pleasant during heatwaves and help prevent damage after extremely heavy rainfall. Pilot projects of such adaptation measures have been carried out within the framework of the "Bratislava is preparing for climate change" project, financed by the EEA grants and Norways Grants (project duration 2014-2017).

"Bratislava has had an active approach in adaption to climate change and protecting drinking water resources. Through the presentation of individual projects, it will be possible to continue to cooperate in the future and to establish contacts with foreign partners in implementing concrete measures to increase the adaptation of cities to climate change," said Ingrid Konrad, Chief Architect, City of Bratislava.

29 September 2017

News from related resilience projects

The EPICURO project has published their Urban Resilience SWOT Analysis Guidance: http://www.epicurocp.eu/2017/08/07/epicuro-task-b-swot-analysis-peer-peer-workshop-meeting-salaspils-2-august-2017/. The aim of such guidance is to enable Partner Cities to analyze local issues, with the engagement and contribution of stakeholders in creating Urban Resilience Strategic Teams (URST), and thereby also identify the best practices which can be applied and transferred through the LASPs.

The GRACeFUL project has published their latest newsletter. Read it on the GRACeFUL project website.

31 July 2017

RESIN Newsletter Issue 6

We are happy to share the sixth issue of the RESIN newsletter with

you. In this edition:

1) About RESIN: Video introduction to the RESIN project with

coordinator Peter Bosch, Tecnalia researcher EfrÉn Feliu and Deputy

Mayor of Bilbao Alfonso Gil

2) Open European Day: The RESIN project co-organized a successful

Open European Day at Bonn Resilient Cities

3) Spotlight on RESIN Tier 2 cities: Nijmegen and Radom

4) Research news: Development of the E-Guide

5) City news: Greater Manchester continues to engage with partners on

climate resilience and the RESIN project

6) Research news: Standardization

7) Co-creation news: Bratislava and vulnerability assessment

8) Related projects: New page on the RESIN website

9) Upcoming events

To read the RESIN newsletter, click here.

28 July 2017

Bratislava is adapting to climate change

The Slovakian capital of Bratislava is fast becoming a climate change adaptation champion for its local region. Through the RESIN project, Bratislava has begun to take an active role in developing and testing tools for adaptation planning. Specific conditions in Bratislava, such as climate change impacts, drivers, stressors and adaptation options, call for tailored outputs and tools, and the city is an active contributor to producing these resources. Crucial to the development process is the close relationship between cities: pilot cities in RESIN work closely together to share their experience and to share this with a wider circle of Tier 2 cities.

Such a city exchange took place as a knowledge transfer workshop held last month in Bratislava. The cities of Greater Manchester and Bratislava in collaboration with TNO, Tecnalia, Frauenhofer and ICLEI welcomed representatives of 10 RESIN Tier 2 cities to Bratislava from 13-14 June 2017. City governments and representatives from Ghent, Lahti, Covasna, Burgas, Reykjavik, Sfantu Gheorghe, Vilnius, Radom, Nijmegen and Newcastle met their Tier 1 partners in Bratislava for a 2-day knowledge transfer workshop at Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mlynská dolina, Bratislava.

During the workshop, the cities provided feedback on the RESIN vulnerability and risk assessment tool, IVAVIA. Bratislava has already developed two impact chains for “Health and wellbeing of the urban population” and “Green infrastructure” and has previously carried out vulnerability assessment. The city stakeholders were able to draw from this experience to provide tool developers with feedback on the prototype IVAVIA. Bratislava has been closely involved in the vulnerability analysis process and assessment of climate change risks. Through regular Skype meetings with RESIN research partner, Fraunhofer, the city is focusing on the process of involving stakeholders and collecting data.

Mapping and understanding vulnerability and risk is becoming increasingly important to Bratislava. The city has been facing a rapid increase in tropical nights with maximum temperatures of over 20 degrees Celsius. These hot nights have boomed in number from less than 5 in 1990 to 48 hot nights in 2013, and the trend is increasing every year. Thermovisual scanning clearly shows the benefit of green spaces and urban water features for cooling down urban areas and controlling these extreme nighttime temperatures. Local measures for adapting to this new climate reality such as green and blue infrastructure will be essential if Bratislava’s citizens are to get a good night’s sleep.

Bratislava became a pilot project of RESIN: Climate Resilient Cities and Infrastructures in 2015. Since then, it has also joined the core group of cities supporting the new Urban Water Agenda and hosted Bremen (Germany) and Arnhem (Netherlands) as part of the Mayors Adapt City Twinning Programme. In April 2017, the City parliament endorsed the “Action Plan for adaptation to climate change in Bratislava.”

The city’s next ambition is to support the usage of RESIN outputs and tools through translation into Slovak, to raise awareness of the benefits of climate change adaptation through boosting communication and stakeholder involvement, and finally, Bratislava aims to gain political commitment in order to be able to implement the results of the vulnerability assessment in the city’s master plan and urban development scenarios.

Read the full article

18 July 2017

SMR invites cities to Thessaloniki workshop on strategic resilience planning

The SMR project has been working for just over two years to develop a suite of tools to help cities enhance their resilience. These tools have been developed in close cooperation between seven partner cities of Glasgow, San Sebastian, Kristiansand, Rome, Riga, Bristol and Vejle, SMR's four university partners, ICLEI Europe and standardization body DIN.

The cities have been working with researchers to develop five strategic support and discussion formats that the cities are using to identify and select policies they should implement to address weaknesses in their resilience management, to develop long-term resilience strategies as well as structures for cross-departmental cooperation outside of the usual 'silos'.

Now that the tools are being finalised, they will be shared with a wider group of cities at a Stakeholder Dialogue event in Thessaloniki, Greece. Three tools are already available to cities: the Resilience Maturity Model, Risk Systemicity Questionnaire and Resilience Engagement and Communication Tool. Two further tools: a System Dynamics Model and a collection of Resilience Policies will be completed before the event.

Registration for the Stakeholder Dialogue will open soon. For more information, please contact clara.grimes@iclei.org.

17 July 2017

Radom: RESIN Tier 2 city

Radom (Poland) is located in the centre of Radom Plain, approximately 100km south of Warsaw, in the fork of the Vistula and Pilica rivers. At the turn of the 8th and 9th centuries, in the valley of the Mleczna river the first type of rural settlements were established, inhabited by farmers and fishermen. The settlement developed into an early-medieval town, chartered according to the Środa law, a variant of the Magdeburg law.

By the end of the 18th century Radom was in a state of neglect. The ancient city walls were in ruin. Private houses, town and ecclesiastical property were devastated and in need of renovation. Streets were muddy and difficult to pass. The Mleczna river lowlands and areas situated to the south were repeatedly flooded. There was an urgent need to dry and re-organize the town. In 1822 the regulation plan concerning organisation and expansion of Radom was approved.

One of the aims of the project was to establish new residential areas in the developing town, which already spread beyond its original medieval boundaries. In the years 1918-1945 the development of the city continued. The inclusion of Radom to the Central Industrial District allowed the creation of several factories. In 1933 a new railway line was built connecting Radom and Warsaw.

Alternating periods of flooding or drying forest are occurring more frequently than before. In 2013, the area of more than 920 ha was damaged due to interference of water relations including 560 ha of flooding area and 360 ha of drying area. Other abiotic and anthropogenic factors like low or high temperatures, frost and hail have smaller, local significance. In 2013 hail caused damage to more than 400 ha, fire affected 12 hectares while the extreme temperatures damaged 7 hectares.

Radom is planning to control flood water by implementing effective and cost-efficient green infrastructure measures, by supporting natural water retention through the restoration and preservation of natural green areas and wetlands.

Read more

4 July 2017

Study reveals heat waves in cities will increase tenfold from 2081-2100

Many European cities are experiencing extremely high temperatures this summer – a trend that municipalities are accepting will continue. According to findings by RAMSES researchers, there will be 10 times more heat wave days from 2081-2100, reaching nearly 30 heat wave days per year on average.

A study by RAMSES related to the 2003 heat wave in France found that while heat waves coincided with an increase in deaths in small towns, Paris, as a major city, suffered nearly three times the number of additional deaths during heat waves.

Why do cities tend to be warmer than their rural surroundings? Firstly, there are more buildings and soil sealing: buildings store heat during the day and release them at night. Walls cause additional radiation as they reflect the sun’s rays and reduce ventilation in narrow streets. Secondly, cities cool less due to less vegetation in city centres causing lower evaporation levels. Thirdly, humans create additional heat, such as through vehicle exhaust. The maps produced following a study in Antwerp and 101 other European cities show where in cities the highest temperatures are occurring and which areas should be prioritised for adaptation measures.

The project found that a typical western European city has a mean temperature difference at midnight of around 4oC . City temperatures on hot summer nights are 8oC -10oC higher than rural areas, as a result of less ventilation and higher populations. The RAMSES project is now completing its fifth year working with cities to promote adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development. The project is currently holding a series of free webinars, which will continue on 13 July.

For more information and to register, click here.

13 June 2017

Nijmegen: RESIN Tier 2 city

Nijmegen is located on the river Waal, between hills, polders and forests, which has been attracting people to the place for over 2,000 years. As the Netherland’s oldest city, it cherishes its history, while also realising that a sustainable future for its inhabitants is at least as important.

As of 2016, Nijmegen had 172,000 inhabitants, 75,000 houses, 80,000 cars and 250,000 bicycles. Since 1923 Nijmegen has been home to Radboud University. Together with the HAN University of Applied Sciences, it educates 40,000 students, which helps to inspire the city's youthful, modern culture.

Developing sustainably

Nijmegen is still growing. North of the Waal, the city is developing a new district with 12,000 houses. This sustainable development is based on the Ecopolis theory, whereby the basis for city development is natural infrastructure, sustainable green-blue infrastructure to store rainwater for use during dry periods and green space to provide citizens with beautiful surroundings and for recreation. The new houses are energy efficient and are largely connected to the residual heat network. A sustainable mobility system is also being developed that puts cycling and clean public transport first.

Adapting to climate change using nature

The Room for the Waal project (widening the river in the city centre) was the biggest inland climate adaptation project in Holland. People from all over the world come to visit Nijmegen for this outstanding example of water system innovation. In the heart of the city, the dike was relocated 350m and now a side channel and an island have been created in the river Waal. This River Park provides high water security and spatial quality at the same time.

The realization process involved extensive discussion and collaboration with various stakeholders. Concerns were raised before the outset by some people concerned that houses would have to be removed for high water safety reasons. However, these measures have proven to have been worth it, and citizens felt proud of the project and that the government delivered the promised outcome. The city Nijmegen took over the lead from the State government in this project, demanding a high spatial quality. The project was completed on time and within the budget. All residential areas are traffic safe (max. speed 30 km/h). Most residents go to work by bike or public transport. All city/regional busses are powered by green gas.

Climate challenges

But Nijmegen still faces the negative effects of climate change: heavy rains and heat stress. In districts built after 1965 rain and drainage water remains separated. In districts built before 1965 we disconnect streets and houses from the mixed sewer and store the rainwater into the ground. Since 2000 already 15% of the paved surface is no disconnected and more and more also grey areas are turned over into green areas (pocket parks, green roofs, green walls) together with the citizens' participation.

Read more

9 June 2017

Connecting Nature project: nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation

The Connecting Nature project kicked off yesterday at Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). Connecting Nature is a €12m European-funded project to position Europe as a global leader in the innovation and implementation of Nature-based Solutions. Three cities: Glasgow (United Kingdom), Poznan (Poland) and Genk (Belgium) will invest in multi-million-euro large scale implementation test-beds of Nature-based Solutions, followed by eight further cities: A Coruna (Spain), Bologna (Italy), Burgas (Bulgaria), Ioannina (Greece), Malaga (Spain), Nicosia (Cyprus), Pavlos Melas (Greece) and Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

The city of Genk aims to use nature-based solutions to tackle city issues like water management, and to provide multifunctional recreational areas, for example by developing the Stiemerbeek Valley. Glasgow aims to help provide convenient access to high-quality green spaces to its citizens and to continue the innovative flood management measures that are already in place, for example climbing walls and outdoor public seating areas that also help soak up flood water. Poznan has also transformed parts of the city with some impressive innovations, for example mobile greenery and furniture in the courtyard of the City Hall, rain gardens and four new municipal beaches along the Warta river.

The project will try out natural approaches to tackle challenges related to climate change adaptation, health and well-being, social cohesion as well as sustainable economic development. A number of businesses are also partners of the project, with the aim to spur on new green companies and social enterprises. ICLEI is a partner of the project, and will engage cities internationally in China, Brazil and Korea to allow international to allow peer-to-peer learning to scale up urban resilience, innovation and governance via nature-based solutions.

For more information, please see https://twitter.com/CONNECTINGNBS.

8 June 2017

Open European Day in focus

Open European Day at Bonn Resilient Cities took place on 3rd May 2017 with over 100 participants. Representatives of European and global cities caught up with colleagues and collaborators from the climate change adaptation and resilience sector, researchers, the private sector, financiers and EU institutions. Alberto Terenzi (ICLEI Europe) and Birgit Georgi (Strong cities in a changing climate) launched directly into discussions in their opening of the event by greeting new and returning participants by microphone with some topical questions. This friendly and informal opening gave the Open European Day community a flavour of the open and conversational atmosphere that makes the day so special. To officially open the event, Birgit Georgi spotted a regular returning participant, Deputy Mayor of Bonn, Reinhard Limbach, who took to the podium with an opening sentiment on climate reality to which the cities in the audience applauded in agreement: “What used to happen once in 100 years now happens once a year.”

Facilitators Aleksandra Kazmierczak (European Environment Agency) and Holger Robrecht (ICLEI Europe) looked back over the last year in climate change adaptation, particularly the success among cities of the European Environment Agency report “Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe 2016 — Transforming cities in a changing climate,” which was launched at last year’s Open European Day and been widely used by cities since.

Cities need support in adapting to climate change

Sirpa Hertell (Committee of the Regions) joined the opening panel as a unique voice representing both the Committee of the Regions and the Finnish city and municipality Espoo, where she is a city councillor. She stressed that cities and regions should be helped to find the right combination of public and private funding for adapting to climate change, and called on researchers and universities to support cities in assessing their climate risks and vulnerability.

A lot of data and technical tools for climate change adaptation in cities have been gathered and produced, but the crucial step is making scientific results useable. This was the message from Nicolas Faivre (European Commission – DG Research) on the need for cities to articulate their needs so that they can be supported in climate action. This kind of transfer depends on exchange and co-creation between researchers and cities as well as collaborative events such as Open European Day.

Politicians need to commit to climate change adaptation

Climate hazards and extreme climate events often function as a trigger for adaptation policies to be implemented. In Vejle’s case, alongside broad work on resilience underway in the city, attention was drawn to the need for adaptation following heavy rains and flooding last year. While there can be many different reasons why cities decide to implement climate change adaptation measures, including reactions to hazards and disasters, recreational or aesthetic improvements or for city planning logistics, Peter Massini (City of London) reminded his colleagues from around Europe that these moments are crucial opportunities for practitioners with more knowledge and awareness of the co-benefits of adaptation. Once funding and permission for an adaptation measure has been approved through political commitment, policy officers in municipalities and city councils are the ones who can capitalise on the many co-benefits: from health, biodiversity, flood risk management, air quality and reducing the urban heat island effect to areas as diverse as social cohesion and economic advantages.

Cities have common climate challenges

“Solutions should add social value to the city for cities and also raise awareness about risks," said Anne Petersen (City of Vejle) and suggested that other cities make note of measures like the nature-based flood management solutions in Vejle that also provide recreational water areas. Vejle has been working as part of the Smart Mature Resilience project and its involvement in the 100 Resilient Cities network to help citizens understand the concepts of climate change adaptation and resilience, as this word does not exist in Danish. Communication on climate is a challenge common to European cities. In London’s case, Peter Massini addressed the difficulty of motivating citizens to engage with climate issues, which they can find abstract or irrelevant. For example, in London, it is easy to communicate air quality issues, but flooding London has been transforming: it has a climate adaptation strategy and is now developing a London environment strategy.

Making progress on climate action

“Cities have been doing adaptation without calling it so,” as Sandro Nieto Silleras (European Commission DG Clima) noted before inviting cities to communicate their local energy and climate action needs to the European Commission’s DG Clima and the Global Covenant of Mayors via a survey. He commended cities for their progress on climate change adaptation and encouraged cities to communicate their stories and to help their peers replicate their successful measures.

Guimarães has been able to save money and work towards the Sustainable Development Goals by working with local researchers. A flood management project in the historical city centre helped the city eliminate floods in the area and by extension, all flood-related losses in the area, since the measures were implemented in 2015. The city of Bilbao, a partner of the RAMSES project and RESIN project, which were supporters and co-organisers of the event respectively, showed how the city has made great leaps recently in its work on climate change by including a chapter on climate change in its master plan and elaborating a sustainable urban mobility plan.

Insider tips: how cities can finance adaptation

One question on many cities’ lips and a barrier brought up on every edition on Open European Day is how to access financing to fund climate adaptation projects. Stefanie Lindenberg (European Investment Bank) gave specific advice for cities on how to write successful applications to the EIB’s Natural Capital Financing Facility, which provides loans and investments between €1m-€50m to cities for climate change adaptation projects. How can cities have their applications approved? Favourable factors are: well-defined projects, well-defined stakeholders and realistic capacity expectations, and the presence of a city adaptation strategy. Innovation as it relates to nature-based solutions can be useful, but innovation is not necessarily the most important criteria overall.

The event also hosted a successful ‘OED Marketplace’ including stands by ICLEI, the EEA, RESIN, RAMSES, PLACARD, the EIB, DG CLIMA and DG RESEARCH. The day concluded with the ‘Sound of Adaptation’: a collaborative improvisation by all of the conference participants and facilitated by Clara Grimes (ICLEI Europe). Four cycles of climate change challenges: storms, rain, flooding and heatwaves were created with acoustic sounds, and live recordings of the sounds created rhythmic electronic loops, creating an immersive experience where the players became increasingly aware of their part in the climate system. The effect became increasingly clamorous, as the mixture of recorded loops and acoustic sounds reached a crescendo, when the groups synced in with one another, calming down the electronic noise and leaving natural swoops and falls of a healthy and adapted climate system.

Photos are available of the conference on Flickr. Video interviews of the event with Nuno Lopes, City of Almada and Lykke Leonardsen, City of Copenhagen are available on ICLEI Europe’s YouTube channel. A full report on the conference will be made available in early autumn 2017.

17 May 2017

Cities and scientists co-create interactive simulation game on first day of SMR Glasgow workshop

Glasgow City Council welcomed project partners, project cities and local stakeholders to the Lighthouse, Glasgow this morning for the first day of the Smart Mature Resilience project’s review workshop. During the morning session, the partners built on progress made at the project’s recent workshop, where European cities and a group of projects focusing on related topics met to compare tool development and discuss the optimal conditions for developing possible standards for resilience management in cities.

The SMR project is developing a Resilience Management Guideline supported by five tools, which provides a pathway to lead cities towards a more resilient future. Each tool serves a complementary purpose. The Resilience Maturity Model helps cities to identify their level of resilience maturity and helps them to identify policies that would be helpful measures towards resilience-building. The Risk Systemicity Questionnaire can bring together diverse stakeholders in a city to better understand their awareness of risk and the interrelatedness of risk. The Resilience Information Portal can provide useful software to cities, which they can use to make their communication system more resilient.

During the workshop in Glasgow, cities and scientific partners worked closely together to continue co-development of the System Dynamics Model, which is a game-like online learning tool to help strategic managers and other stakeholders involved in budgeting and strategic planning for resilience in cities identify and decide the most efficient and most strategically accurate policies to implement, and the order in which to do this.

The tool functions with an interactive interface, where users input a symbolic budget for resilience development and adjust the proportional investment in different areas regarding resilience for their city. The user can then run simulations of the effects of prioritizing investment in different areas in different order, using the tool as a kind of playground to trial methods of policy prioritization in a safe environment. Intensive collaborative sessions and exercises with TECNUN, University of Navarra and CIEM, University of Agder collected input from the SMR cities of Glasgow, Kristiansand, Donostia, Vejle, Rome, Riga and Bristol to validate the tool and ensure that it is an ideal format for immediate application and use by cities.

A further tool for Resilience Policies will then provide information, examples and case studies of the policies identified through the Resilience Maturity Model and the System Dynamics Model. The workshop will continue tomorrow with sessions hosted by the University of Strathclyde to work with cities on co-developing this tool.

Impressions of the first day are available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/iclei_europe/sets/72157683833382116/with/34331508890/. You can find out more about Glasgow and SMR at http://smr-project.eu/glasgow/.

16 May 2017

Development of the RESIN e-Guide

The RESIN project is developing an e-Guide, which is an online platform designed to provide decision support for climate change adaptation planning by city administrators. It does this by:

• Providing a structured and comprehensive overview of the various steps and activities that an urban adaptation process consists of;

• Providing practical, user-oriented support to actually perform such an adaptation process;

• Providing a portal to the most relevant sources of information and supporting methods available on the web, including the provision of new tools and methods that are currently not available;

• Providing guidance (where attainable) for choosing the best approaches, methods, tools and information sources for particular situations and particular steps;

• Providing references to evidence based information;

The development of the e-Guide has just entered a new phase. The high-level design has been finished, and is recorded in an extensive document. It describes the functions of e-Guide, its intended use, its encompassing components and how they work together. It also gives the requirements for development and describes the development and test plan.

This means that the project will now focus on the development of the e-Guide, define how it will work, what it should look like and how it will interact with the user. This work is currently being undertaken in WP6. The first mock-up versions of the e-Guide have been shown to the consortium in the Manchester GA meeting of 9 May. A process to verify and enhance these designs with potential users is currently being undertaken.

10 May 2017

Cities send the message at Open European Day to “Go ahead and act!” on climate change adaptation

Deputy Mayor of Bonn Reinhard Limbach opened Open European Day 2017 on 3rd May 2017 in Bonn with the observation that “what used to happen once in 100 years now happens once a year". 104 representatives from cities in European and as far abroad as Buenos Aires attended Open European Day at Bonn Resilient Cities along with climate change adaptation and resilience experts from the academic community, the private sector, financiers and EU institutions to attend two panels and nine workshops focussing on the key themes of innovation, co-creation and transformation. Stephanie Lindenberg of the European Investment bank provided details of how cities can successfully apply for funding of between €1m-€50m for climate change adaptation projects through the Natural Capital Financing Facility.

Lykke Leonardsen explained that the city of Copenhagen joined the 4th Open European Day “to share the knowledge that we have in Copenhagen with other cities, but also to learn from other cities, because a lot of European cities are facing the same challenges... And because the same cities participate, you can actually get to follow the development they are going through.” Bilbao, a partner city of the event’s co-organiser, the RESIN project, showed how Bilbao included a chapter on climate change in its Master Plan and started work on its SUMP. Sirpa Hertell, Committee of the Regions spoke from her experience as Espoo city councillor to stress that cities and regions need the support of researchers and universities to assess their climate risks and vulnerability.

New ICLEI member Guimarães shared their successful flood management project in a historical part of the city, which has helped to eliminate flooding in the area since 2015. Finally, Nuno Lopes, city of Almada reflected on the support that ICLEI gives to cities: “The importance of ICLEI with Almada has been huge... It has been a fantastic help for us to find out some climate regulation solutions that we might use in our city in the next years.” Open European Day was organised by ICLEI Europe and the European Environment Agency.

Watch the video interview with Nuno Lopes at Open European Day here.

Watch the video interview with Lykke Leonardsen at Open European Day here.

See the photos of the event here.

A follow-up reported will be circulated soon. To receive the report, please contact iclei-europe-adaptation@lists.iclei.org.

19 April 2017

European Investment Bank supports the Open European Day 2017

Open European Day at Bonn Resilient Cities will bring European cities together to discuss their common challenges and share their successful solutions in a uniquely interactive event that sees cities taking centre stage and sharing cases from their most recent experiences in a conversational format. Innovation, co-creation and transformation in cities are the event’s three main themes and will frame the opening plenary and the break-out sessions. During the plenary, organizers ICLEI Europe and the European Environment Agency will open the day with the European Commission’s DG Research and DG CLIMA, the European Investment Bank, the Committee of the Regions and with the participating cities.

The event will include the OED Marketplace, where participants can share, display and discuss their latest ideas and results. The Marketplace will feature a Road to Adaptation Wall, an Adaptation Poetry Slam, where participants can present their organization or project in super-fast elevator pitches, and the day will finish with a musical exploration of the Sound of Adaptation.

The Open European Day programme is made up of interactive workshops where cities present a real-life challenge and explore solutions to these challenges with participants. On the topic of innovation, EASME and the European Commission will hear examples from Berlin Moabit and Valladolid on using technology for innovating adaptation. Ingrid Coninx (Wageningen University) and the European Investment bank will frame a discussion between Raffaella Gueze, City of Bologna and José Ferreira, City of Lisbon about innovative financing for climate adaptation, and Guimarães (Portugal) will share its experiences with innovation in multi-purpose nature-based solutions.

On the topic of co-creation, Athens (Greece) and the European Environment Agency will contribute on citizens as drivers of change, Peter Massini (City of London) will talk about adaptation and social inclusion and a discussion on co-creation with research and business will bring together contributions by Alistair Ford (University of Newcastle), Marjorie Breyton (Life DERRIS Project) and examples by the city of Vagos (Portugal), Valka (Latvia) and Exeter (UK).

Bratislava (Slovakia) and next year’s European Green Capital of Nijmegen (Netherlands) will share their impressions of how transformation manifests in a physical sense in their cities, facilitated by Birgit Georgi (Physical City Adaptation). The PLACARD project, the Provence of Potenza and the City of Vejle will explore how adaptation relates to the other urban development agendas, and a final Covenant of Mayors session on city transformation through administration will include contributions by Bilbao (Spain) and Copenhagen (Denmark).

Attendance at the Open European Day is free of charge to cities and registration is open at https://fs8.formsite.com/iclei12/form92/index.html. A draft programme is now available on the Bonn Resilient Cities website at http://resilientcities2017.iclei.org/open-european-day/.

19 April 2017

Greater Manchester continues to engage with partners on climate resilience and the RESIN project

In December 2016, a refreshed Climate Change and Low Emissions Implementation plan was launched. This plan is owned by the Greater Manchester Low Carbon Hub, a board of public, private, voluntary, university and government representatives.

The RESIN project was very pleased to be invited, along with Greater Manchester’s 100 Resilient Cities initiative, to present jointly on these two closely aligned projects and on progress and next steps around a range of climate resilience issues and actions.

Very positively, there was a real recognition of both the importance of critical infrastructure resilience and the urban systems approach of RESIN. There was also a clear desire to see genuine action on the issue of climate and wider resilience issues. But whilst the efforts of both these projects were making at tackling these were welcomed, a clear frustration was communicated around the complexity of the issues and the other barriers which slow or even stop practical action occurring.

But the strong support and recognition of the issues from around the room, particularly from water and energy utility representatives, will positively help the GM RESIN team continue to progress its work over the summer. This includes following up on the 2 Impact Chains now produced (one for pluvial flooding to road transport infrastructure and the other on the impact of extreme heat/drought on the functionality of GM’s green infrastructure. Similarly, the wider GM Critical Infrastructure Risk assessment planned for the next 6 months will have senior and cross sector support from the board members and their organisations which will help secure data and technical input into the co-creation process.

13 April 2017

Bratislava impact chain workshop

On April 4, 2017 RESIN project partners Bratislava City and Comenius University (UNIBA) hosted a workshop aimed at drafting initial impact chains in order to start the assessment of vulnerability of the city and its infrastructures to the impacts of climate change. Throughout the preparation of the meeting, RESIN Partner and leader of WP2, Fraunhofer, helped and guided the City partners in order to harmonise the workshop with past workshops, which have already taken place in Bilbao or Manchester.

The meeting was thematically broken down into two sessions. The morning session focused more on urban population and the impacts of climate change on health and quality of life. The second (afternoon) session focused on green infrastructure: as a critical infrastructure, sensitive to climate change on hand a being a an important factor in adaptation and mitigation on the other. The associated climate change risks were pluvial flooding and heatwaves for the urban population and droughts in relation to green infrastructure. Altogether, 16 stakeholders joined the meeting; spatial planners and environmental managers as well as external stakeholders; representing social care and care for elderly and the Slovak hydrometeorological institute.

As part of the discussion, the point was raised of out how the results of vulnerability assessments can be utilised in terms of urban planning and prevention risk resulting from climate change risks. The outcomes of the meeting are currently being analysed, and further meetings are planned to engage further city stakeholders.

12 April 2017

European cities and researchers discuss resilience and standardisation at SMR workshop

Representatives of eleven European cities and communities as well as scientific experts in the field of resilience as well as the standardisation committees ‘Security and Resilience’ and ‘Sustainable cities and communities’ met in Berlin on 4th April 2017 to discuss resilience in cities and communities with a particular focus on the potential of standardisation to support high-quality management and decision-making at city level as a key element in fostering effective resilience development in cities.

European resilience projects SMR, DARWIN, IMPROVER, RESILIENS, RESOLUTE, Resccue and RESIN convened at this event, as they are working towards similar goals, and could see the benefit in an open discussion of their current state of progess. The day opened with a summary of the current status and progress made so far by each project, keeping in mind potential for collaboration and sharing of results. The presentations showed that the different projects have a variety of focus areas, priorities and methods, while all working towards mutually complementary goals. Smart Mature Resilience and RESIN bring together cities and researchers to investigate and build urban resilience in European cities. While both projects take cities as their particular areas of interest, SMR encompasses the wider spectrum of resilience aspects including social dynamics, while RESIN pinpoints the relevance of climate change adaptation as part of resilience-building.

The RESILENS and IMPROVER projects take critical infrastructures as their main focus, and IMPROVER was of particular interest to the cities present due to the project's plans to develop a game-based training app. Like IMPROVER, RESOLUTE will develop a game-based mobile e-learning tool. Finally, the comprehensive RESCCUE project showed the comprehensive scope of the five-year project and its Hazar tool.

The cities then joined a city-specific workshop while the research projects compared the overlaps between their project outputs so far and the prospects for combining or contributing to one anothers' tools. In the city workshop, cities shared their resilience challenges and examples of good practice and contributed to how they might see standardization supporting their local resilience-building process.

30 March 2017

New tool 'Risk Systemicity Questionnaire' launched

SMR has completed and shared its latest tool, the Risk Systemicity Questionnaire (RSQ), which is now available to cities. The RSQ is an Excel based tool where users are asked to consider the relative likelihood of a broad range of risks in their cities. These risks are spread across 9 topics: health, climate change (air pollution), climate change (flooding), social inequalities, ageing (population), riots, immigration, social cohesion and social alienation and are considered as networks of interrelated risks. These networks of risks are presented as risk scenarios, some of which result in vicious cycles. Users progress through the tool by completing questions which ask them to consider whether defined risks scenarios are likely or not to occur in their cities.

Based on the responses to the questions contained in each of the topics of the RSQ, participants are provided with a relative risk score (an estimated risk level for the city) and an awareness score (the level of knowledge the city has about the possible risk scenarios). In addition to this, users can access policies recommendations that may be used to address those risk scenarios that are of most threat to the city.

Not only does completing the Risk Systemicity Questionnaire help cities to assess their exposure to risk, but it also indicates their level of awareness of risk and where cities should prioritise their efforts. The purpose of the questionnaire is for it to be used by groups of users with diverse areas of expertise so that it can prompt valuable discussions where different stakeholders’ experiences can be brought together to determine a city’s priorities to enable them to anticipate and appropriately respond to future challenges.

28 March 2017

Berlin workshop to empower cities to use standards in their resilience management

Standardisation is quickly becoming a key approach in resilience management and in climate change management for cities, but it is often not easy for cities to know where to start. The Smart Mature Resilience project will hold a workshop next week in Berlin to help to respond to cities’ queries and to empower them to take the next steps in using standards in their resilience management next week in DIN, Berlin, Germany. The workshop will include insights from the cutting-edge European projects working on the latest resilience and climate change adaptation science: SMR, DARWIN, IMPROVER, RESILIENS, RESO-LUTE, Resccue, RESIN, SmartResilience, as well as expert presentations from standardization committees ‘Security and Resilience’ and ‘Sustainable cities and communities’.

Following the presentations, the afternoon will focus on the cities themselves and their experience, discussing the challenges and needs of cities and communities for becoming more resilient and exploring possible solutions and good practices. Finally, a gap analysis will help to boost cities ambitious plans to make the most of existing standards to plan strategic resilience management that is coherent with their peer cities and will help to provide a robust foundation for their citizens.

Cities can still register for the workshop at http://smr-project.eu/news/events/berlin-workshop/.

27 March 2017

Open European Day to put cities centre-stage to work together on adaptation

As European citizens enjoy the first sunny days of spring, city planners and climate experts reflect on last winter’s flooding and storms and consider the heatwaves that are likely to hit European cities this summer. Open European Day at Bonn Resilient Cities will bring European cities together to discuss their common challenges and share their successful solutions in a uniquely interactive event that sees cities taking centre stage and sharing cases from their most recent experiences in a conversational format. Innovation, co-creation and transformation in cities are the events three main themes for the event and will frame the opening plenary, facilitated by organizers ICLEI Europe and the European Environment Agency, and with contributions by the Committee of the Regions, DG Clima, DG Research and the European Investment Bank.

The event will include interactive workshops where cities will present a real-life challenge and during the workshop, participants will explore solutions to these challenges. On the topic of innovation, participants will discuss examples from Bologna (Italy) and Lisbon (Portugal) of innovative financing for climate adaptation and Guimarães (Portugal) will share its experiences with innovation in multi-purpose nature-based solutions. On the topic of co-creation, Athens (Greece) will contribute on citizens as drivers of change, Greater London (UK) on adaptation and social inclusion and Vagos (Portugal), Valka (Latvia) and the Life DERRIS project will discuss co-creation with research and business.

Bratislava (Slovakia) and next year’s European Green Capital of Nijmegen (Netherlands) will share their impressions of how transformation manifests in a physical sense in their cities, and a final Covenant of Mayors session on city transformation through administration will include contributions by Bilbao (Spain) and Copenhagen (Denmark).

Attendance at the Open European Day is free of charge to cities and registration is now open. A draft programme is now available on the Bonn Resilient Cities website at http://resilientcities2017.iclei.org/open-european-day/.

16 March 2017

Coping with complexity, handling uncertainty

In their endeavours to increase the climate resilience of cities, urban administrators, planners and decision makers have to deal with considerable uncertainty and complexity. The effects of climate change in terms of the impact of extreme weather events and the frequencies and intensities with which they occur are uncertain. Consequences in terms of associated risks to cities, for their infrastructures and inhabitants, depend very much on preparations that cities have in place or are planning for, to cope with these phenomena. Moreover, uncertainties arise from cascading effect, due to (un)foreseen relations between different urban areas, stakeholders or adaptation measures.

Despite these considerable uncertainties, decision makers have to act. Although the terms uncertainty, risk management and complexity are widely used in the policy making domain, there is little appreciation for the fact that there are many different dimensions of uncertainty, and there is a lack of understanding about their different characteristics, relative magnitudes, and available means of dealing with them. This results in cities experiencing difficulties in how to deal with uncertainty and complexity, which nevertheless must be acknowledged and integrated into

policy making for the future.

RESIN has produced a document that aims to break down complexity and uncertainty into understandable definitions and aspects in the context of urban climate resilience. This improves the ability of linking methods and instruments to deal with complexity and uncertainty with the particular challenges that arise. Climate change policies in general are very reliant on uncertainty management. This means that the choice of

risk and uncertainty management strategy should be carefully weighed against the particular “uncertainty or complexity challenge” that is at stake. This effort should be seen as the starting point of addressing the issues of uncertainty and complexity in the RESIN project. It provides city planners in general with an overview of methods and tools they can use to handle complexity and uncertainty. The methods and instruments presented in this report will be selectively discussed and applied within the RESIN cities.

13 March 2017

European cities and communities need resilience

Cities in Europe are facing increasing challenges and threats to citizens' safety and stability. Climate change is flooding homes and causing unprecedented storms, and cities are struggling to provide accommodation and support to their elderly and refugees fleeing war. Scientists and cities have been working intensively across Europe to investigate how to best provide cities with the support they need to enhance their cities and communities to be sustainable, resilient and prepared to handle the hazards ahead. European research projects working on the topic of resilience will come together at a unique workshop in Berlin to present their progress and discuss with cities their challenges and needs for becoming more resilient as well as sharing effective solutions and best practices.

The workshop is organised by DIN and will be held in the DIN premises in Berlin. In the final session of the workshop, standardisation will be discussed, and the way in which the development of standards can potentially support the resilience-building process in cities.

Limited travel support is available to city representatives for attending the workshop. For more information, please see the SMR website.

6 March 2017

San Sebastian Mayor hails cities as the ideal scale for developing resilience

Eneko Goia, Mayor of San Sebastian, welcomed the Smart Mature Resilience project to San Sebastian City Hall on 6th March 2017, emphasizing that “cities are the ideal scale for working on resilience”. Resilience-building is crucial to for San Sebastian, as the coastal city is already experiencing the consequences of climate change, particularly flooding. As the mayor joked, “The sea wants to recover all of those places we took in the past!” The project is developing a new Resilience Management Guideline, which helps cities to make the right decisions and policies to build resilience. This guideline is designed to be useable not only by the project cities, but by all European and global cities. Resilient cities support one another and bolster each other’s ability to recover from shocks and stresses.

“We are building the boat and sailing,” in the words of project coordinator Jose Mari Sarriegi, Tecnun, University of Navarra: the project partners, scientists and cities of San Sebastian, Glasgow, Kristiansand, Bristol, Vejle, Rome and Riga collaborate closely on developing the tools. Two of the tools are complete and are now available for use by cities: the Resilience Maturity Model and the Resilience Information Portal . A Risk Systemicity Questionnaire has been developed and tested in cooperation with the project cities, and this will be launched in the coming months.

The final two tools, the Resilience Policies Portfolio and the System Dynamics Model, are currently being developed. The System Dynamics Model is a game-style simulation programme that allows users to explore the effectiveness of implementing different resilience policies, helping to show which kinds of policies should be implemented in which order as the ideal trajectory towards a resilient city. The project partners and stakeholders are working on testing the model during the San Sebastian meeting, following which the tool developers will integrate the feedback gathered into the final, public version of the tool.

For information in Spanish, please see here.

For more information, please see www.smr-project.eu.

2 February 2017

Cities receive specialist training in the SMR tools

Smart Mature Resilience is undergoing an intensive period of local training, where local stakeholders in the core cities of Donostia, Glasgow and Kristiansand are receiving in-depth training on the use of the SMR tools that have been developed so far.

Training visits began in January 2017 in Donostia, where local stakeholders received training on the use of the Risk Systemicity Questionnaire and the Resilience Information and Communication Portal. Following the training, a 2-tier webinar was held, where Tier 2 city of Bristol heard from the city of Donostia, the Risk Systemicity Questionnaire tool developers at Strathclyde and co-creation partner ICLEI a summary of the results of the training, asked questions and provided feedback on the results.

The process continued this week in Kristiansand, where stakeholders received training on the Resilience Information and Communication Portal and provided input for a webpage on Kristiansand via the tool. Training is currently continuing in Kristiansand on the Resilience Maturity Model. Following training in Kristiansand, Tier 2 partner Vejle will attend a webinar to receive a summary of the results, provide feedback and gain an insight into the outcomes of the training.

Training will continue next week in Donostia on the Resilience Maturity Model, followed by Risk Systemicity Questionnaire training in Kristiansand and accompanying webinars, before Glasgow completes the last phase of the training on all three tools.

1 February 2017

Vulnerability assessment tool piloted in RESIN cities

RESIN’s new risk-based vulnerability assessment tool named ‘IVAVIA’ has been tested in Bilbao and Greater Manchester

The overall aim of a risk-based vulnerability assessment using IVAVIA is to facilitate the understanding of cause-effect relationships of climate change and to assess what impact on people, economy and built-up area under study can be expected now and for the future due to the changing climate. It enables the identification of geographical vulnerability hotspots, which can be used as an entry-point for adaptation measures. The identification of these hotspots will enable prioritizing the areas where actions are needed first.

IVAVIA is a procedure with 9 modules based on the 8 modules of the GIZ Vulnerability Sourcebook.

The application of IVAVIA is embedded in a larger cycle of repeated risk-based vulnerability assessment (IVAVIA), identification of adaptation options, adaptation planning, and implementation (RESIN conceptual framework). IVAVIA starts with preparatory work in module 0. The modules 0-2 have been applied to Bilbao and Greater Manchester so far. Other RESIN cities such as Bratislava will follow in early 2017.

Intermediate results of this activity are a set of impact chains. Modules 3–7 are currently under development, with a focus on estimating risk. After the application of module 8, participating cities may end up with an interactive map about their respective city exposed to a hazard of their choice.

Read more at http://www.resin-cities.eu/resources/tools/ivavia/.

Cities are invited and encouraged to provide their feedback on the tool via the RESIN LinkedIn group.

24 January 2017

Paris case study: Bercy-Charenton urban project

The Bercy-Charenton urban project has been chosen to co-create and test the Adaptation Option Library developed by TECNALIA in the WP3 of RESIN. Located in the south-east of inner Paris, the Bercy-Charenton area covers around 70 hectares south of the 12th district. Surrounded by the Seine and heavy infrastructure (railways, ring road, and interchange of the A4), the area is facing many challenges such as reducing air and noise pollution issues and creating linkage between isolated areas. Through this urban project, the City of Paris aims to turn the site “from an industrial landscape into a new and integrated piece of city fabric”.

The RESIN project aims to help the City of Paris to find the best adaptation options regarding fluvial and pluvial flood risk, heat waves and drought on this site, where development work of public spaces and housing construction should take place from 2018 to 2030.

The first round of meetings for this case study will start in March 2017, and will involve RESIN partners (EIVP, TECNALIA, ICLEI), the urban project manager, the manager of the adaptation strategy of the City of Paris and the Chief Resilience Officer and its team. One of the objectives of the case study is benchmark different alternative designs. The meeting will serve to define together the criteria to be considered for the selection of the adaptation options and discuss the resulting list of adaptation options and the extracted information.

12 January 2017

Bratislava teams up with European cities to adapt to climate change

Bratislava is set to host experts from the Bremen (Germany) and Arnhem (Netherlands) next week to exchange experience on climate change adaptation as part of the Mayors Adapt City Twinning Programme, for which a total of ten European cities have been selected. The meeting will take place from January 16 to 17, 2017.

Although located in different parts of Europe, all the three cities; Bratislava, Bremen and Arnhem; face summer heatwaves, periods of drought, floods and extreme weather events.

As Ingrid Konrad, Chief Architect of the City of Bratislava explains, “Bratislava is making itself internationally visible by its activities in climate change adaptation. As one of the first cities in former Eastern Europe we have elaborated and adopted a strategy for adaptation to climate change and started implementing concrete pilot projects. This is one of the reasons why we have been addressed by the coordinators of Mayors Adapt to take part in the exchange of experience”.

Bratislava, as a core city of the RESIN project, is also working with a group of ‘Tier 2’ cities; Burgas (Bulgaria), Vilnius (Lithuania), Radom (Poland) and Sfântu Gheorghe (Romania), which are observing and providing feedback as Bratislava tests newly-developed tools. RESIN investigates climate change adaptation and resilience in European cities, and as part of the project, the city is working with researchers to co-create practical and applicable tools to support cities in designing and implementing climate adaptation strategies for their local contexts. This co-creation process will also be addressed and shared as part of the upcoming meeting.

The meeting will create a space for the discussion of topics such as creating a suitable city microclimate in summer and winter months, the significance of permeable surfaces, urban greenery and the natural environment, as well as sustainable management of rainwater. The discussion shall also focus on correctly selecting adaptation measures, which have a positive impact not only on the environment but also on the economy. With special regard to economic benefits of adaptation measures, experienced experts from the Institute of Economic and Environmental Policy, University of J. E. Purkyně in Ústí nad Labem, the Czech Republic, have been invited by Mrs. Ingrid Konrad, Chief Architect of the City of Bratislava, to give a lecture on this topic. Applying suitable adaptation measures not only increases citizens’ quality of life, but it also significantly reduces the costs of heating and cooling buildings and the maintenance of green areas, as well as preventing property damage.

The City Twinning Programme enables the cities which have shown interest in this kind of cooperation to delegate their representatives – experts in climate change adaptation to a 2-day visit to another partner city. The City Twinning also enables a visit to other cities, which facilitates building partnerships between European cities and thus possibly starting future cooperation in adaptation to climate change.

Mayors Adapt is an initiative of the European Commission, which obliges the signatories to adopt concrete steps for adapting to negative effects of climate change in their territories. Currently, Mayors Adapt has a successor initiative – the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy, which reflects the EU 2030 goals for adaptation to climate change and energy as well as an integrated approach in addressing adaptation to climate change and mitigating its negative impacts. Bratislava joined Mayors Adapt in 2014.